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Immunologic Biomarkers, Morbidity, and Mortality in Treated HIV Infection

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HIV Transmission Risk Persists During the First 6 Months of Antiretroviral Therapy

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Patterns of Cardiovascular Mortality for HIV-Infected Adults in the United States: 1999 to 2013

Adjunctive Dexamethasone in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

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CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell kinetics in aviremic HIV-infected patients developing Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma

CD8 T-Cell Expansion and Inflammation Linked to CMV Coinfection in ART-treated HIV Infection

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Does Not Worsen Prognosis of Liver Transplantation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Ongoing HIV Replication Replenishes Viral Reservoirs During Therapy

Incidence and progression of coronary artery calcium in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men

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Levels of intracellular HIV-DNA in patients with suppressive antiretroviral therapy

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Time trends for risk of severe age-related diseases in individuals with and without HIV infection in Denmark: a nationwide population-based cohort study



The effect of cumulating exposure to abacavir on the risk of cardiovascular disease events in patients from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study

Course and Clinical Significance of CD8+ T-Cell Counts in a Large Cohort of HIV-Infected Individuals

Impact of low-level viremia on clinical and virological outcomes in treated HIV-1-infected patients

HIV-1 subtype B-infected MSM may have driven the spread of transmitted resistant strains in France in 2007-12: impact on susceptibility to first-line strategies

Influence of the Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy on the Potential for Normalization of Immune Status in Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1–Infected Individuals

Cross-sectional Comparison of the Prevalence of Age-Associated Comorbidities and Their Risk Factors Between HIV-Infected and Uninfected Individuals: The AGEhIV Cohort Study

CD4/CD8 ratio normalisation and non-AIDS-related events in individuals with HIV who achieve viral load suppression with antiretroviral therapy: an observational cohort study

Baseline HIV-1 resistance, virological outcomes, and emergent resistance in the SECOND-LINE trial: an exploratory analysis

Effects of statin therapy on coronary artery plaque volume and high-risk plaque morphology in HIV-infected patients with subclinical atherosclerosis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Low Bone Mineral Density in Patients With Well-Suppressed HIV Infection: Association With Body Weight, Smoking, and Prior Advanced HIV Disease

Early versus delayed initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with newly diagnosed pulmonary tuberculosis (TB-HAART): a prospective, international, randomised, placebo-controlled trial

A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans

Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial

Predicting the outcomes of treatment to eradicate the latent reservoir for HIV-1

Silent Cerebral Small-Vessel Disease Is Twice as Prevalent in Middle-Aged Individuals With Well-Controlled, Combination Antiretroviral Therapy–Treated Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Than in HIV-Uninfected Individuals
Published by François RAFFI

Updated: 15 September, 2018

Moulignier A, et al; for the Microvascular Brain Retina and Kidney (MicroBREAK) Study Group. Clin Infect Diseases 2018 ; 66:1762-9

Background : Silent cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD) is defined as white matter hyperintensities, silent brain infarction, or microbleeds. CSVD is responsible for future vascular events, cognitive impairment, frailty, and shorter survival. CSVD prevalence
among middle-aged people living with well-controlled HIV infection (PLHIV) is unknown.

Methods : The French National Agency for Research on AIDS and Viral Hepatitis (ANRS) EP51 Microvascular Brain Retina and Kidney Study (MicroBREAK; NCT02082574) is a cross-sectional study with prospective enrollment of treated PLHIV, ≥50 years old
with viral load controlled for ≥12 months, and frequency age- and sex-matched HIV-uninfected controls (HUCs). It was designed to estimate CSVD prevalence on 3T magnetic resonance imaging (3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, transversal T2-weighted gradient-echo imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging), as diagnosed by 2 blinded neuroradiologists. A logistic regression model was used to assess the impact of HIV on CSVD after adjustment for traditional risk factors.

Results : Between June 2013 and May 2016, 456 PLHIV and 154 HUCs were recruited. Median age was 56 and 58 years, respectively (P = .001), among whom 84.9% and 77.3%, respectively (P = .030), were men. CSVD was detected in 51.5% of PLHIV and
36.4% of HUCs with an adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of 2.3. The HIV impact differed according to age, with aOR values of 5.3, 3.7, and 1.0 for age groups <54, 54–60, and >60 years, respectively (P = .022). Older age, hypertension, and lower CD4 cell count nadir were independently associated with a higher risk of CSVD among PLHIV.

Conclusions : HIV is an independent risk factor for CSVD. Despite sustained immunovirological control, the CSVD prevalence was twice as high among middle-aged PLHIV than HUCs.